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ESM 616: Techno-Economic Analyses in Power System Operations

To start off the new semester, we have just developed a page for the ESM 616 Techno-Economic Analyses in Power System Operations class.  The subject seeks to prepare students for the new world of “smart grid” operations.  It specifically seeks to contrast conventional paradigms of power system operations and control with those that will appear in the coming decades.   Emphasis is placed on interdisciplinary, holistic approaches founded upon industrial application and mathematical rigor.  See the LIINES Blog Keywords:  ADWEA — Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority, CIGRE, Control Systems Engineering, DEWA — Dubai Water & Electricity Authority, Dynamic Systems Modeling, Enterprise Control, Graph Theory, IEEE, IEEE CSS, Large Complex Systems, Model-Based Systems Engineering, Operations Research, Power System Economics

Good luck to all as we kick off the Spring Semester.

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ESM 501 Systems Architecture

To start off the new semester, we have just developed a page for the ESM 501 System Architecture class.  The subject addresses one of the first stages of system design, analysis and engineering.  Emphasis is placed on engineering systems which include technical, economic and social aspects.  This blog does often discuss subjects related to systems architecture.  See the LIINES Blog Keywords:  Axiomatic Design, Axiomatic Design for Large Flexible Systems, Design Methodologies, Enterprise Control, Graph Theory, Life Cycle Properties, Model-Based Systems Engineering, Socio-Techno-Economic Systems, and SysML.

Additionally, a new page has been added to overview our other taught courses.

Good luck to all as we kick off the Fall Semester.

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LIINES Research Opportunities

As the Fall 2014 academic semester begins, graduate students begin to shop for classes and thesis research topics.  To help guide junior researchers to the research opportunities at the LIINES, we have posted a new research opportunities page.

Good luck to all as we kick off the Fall Semester.

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Congratulations & Welcome to Masdar Institute’s ESM 2014 Incoming Class

As the Fall 2014 academic semester begins, graduate students begin to shop for classes and thesis research topics.

Today, the Engineering Systems and Management Faculty met to present their research topics to the incoming class. If you missed it, get in touch with the ESM Department Head: Prof. Mohammad Omar.

We also presented the LIINES research overview and you can find the powerpoint slides powerpoint slides here. It includes four research themes:

More information on each of these can be found on the LIINES research page.  Additionally, we have written several blog posts on each of these topics.

Good luck to all as we kick off the Fall Semester.

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Engineering systems as the continued evolution of engineering to real world problems

In a recent blog post entitled:  “Systems Engineering is just plain old Engineering — not more and certainly not less“, the author questions and discusses systems engineering, engineering systems as part of engineering.

Deeper insight is gained by looking at the definition of engineering itself.  One good definition of engineering is:  “Engineering is the professional art of applying science to the optimum conversion of the resources of nature to benefit man.”  In the same book, we find: “Engineering is an art requiring the judgement necessary to adapt knowledge to practical purposes, the imagination to conceive original solutions to problems, and the ability to predict performance and cost of new devices or processes.”  (D. W. Oliver, T. P. Kelliher, and J. G. Keegan, Engineering complex systems with models and objects. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997, pp. 25.)

The real question is whether engineering — as it stands today — does indeed meet these definitions.  Any discipline when analyzed traditionally is two things:  a core of methodological activities and a set of typical applications.   So the question becomes whether these methodological activities are sufficient for the applications; the practical problems that when solved would benefit man.

One challenge of modern engineering is its division into multiple disciplines.  Mechanical, electrical, civil and chemical are but a common few.  Each of these comes with their own core of methodologies and typical applications.   Therefore, it becomes increasingly difficult even within engineering itself to apply methodologies from one engineering discipline into another.  It is equally difficult to apply core methodologies in atypical applications.

Coming back to the definition of engineering, some practical problems are simply so big that they require methodological activities from multiple engineering disciplines and in of themselves are the union of multiple typical domains of application.  Here, it is important to recognize the common adage:  “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts“.

And so traditional systems engineering was born shortly after World War II.  Defense applications like jet fighters and satellites clearly draw from mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering.   Astronautical and Aeronautical engineering departments naturally recognize the need for cross-disciplinary activity and have often included the Systems Engineering Handbook within their curricula. Similar trends emerged in nuclear power plants and even highly automated production facilities.

The four research themes at the Laboratory for Intelligent Integrated Networks of Engineering Systems are further examples of this continuing trend.  The energy-water nexus draws heavily from electric power engineering and water resources management.  The electrification of transportation draws heavily from transportation engineering, electric power engineering, and the mechanical engineering of cars and trains.  Smart (power) grids — as cyber-physical systems — recognize that electric power engineering must expand to include new developments from control systems, optimization, signal processing, communications and information technology.  Similarly, reconfigurable manufacturing systems are cyber-physical and integrate similar subjects.

While integrating knowledge from multiple engineering disciplines is helpful, it is insufficient to meet the original definition of engineering as above.  What if the engineering application requires natural resources that are deemed too large by society?  Till today, people ask this of the Big Dig project in Boston.  Another question.  Does the engineering application truly benefit mankind?  We ask this today in the context of nuclear disarmament.  These questions draw heavily from economics, management, political science and ethics.  And they are relatively subjective as compared to the typical methodological activities found in the engineering disciplines.  And yet, it is naive to think that their solution does not require engaged participation of engineers and their disciplines.

These types of questions dominate 21st century problems as compared to those of the 20th century.  In the 20th century, traditional engineering disciplines began from a set of requirements and ended with some product or service as a solution.  These requirements represented the economics, regulations, policies and ethics as an operating box for engineers.   This role, however, is changing.  In the 21st century, engineers no longer take these “requirements” as given but instead have an expanding role of influence. Chief technology officers have increasingly important roles in the innovative success of modern companies.  Government regulators often seek engineers within their ranks.  And many nations are finding engineers within their legislative and executive branches of government.  We’ve moved from a decomposed top-down world to one that is innovative and bottom-up.

It is from this lens that the field of engineering systems finds itself.  It’s still the same engineering definition but the nature of the problem has changed.  This is a good sign.  Engineers are increasingly bringing pervasive solutions to benefit mankind.  As they do, they will increasingly interface with the disciplines devoted to people and society:  the humanities and social sciences.  As that happens, adhering to the definition of engineering will require engineers to converse with these disciplines.  Common definitions and methods are likely to develop as all of these disciplines collectively work to solve mankind’s techno-economic-social problems.

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Journal Paper Accepted at the Applied Energy Journal: Real-Time Economic Dispatch for the Supply Side of the Energy-Water Nexus

The LIINES is happy to announce that Applied Energy Journal has accepted our recent paper entitled:  Real-Time Economic Dispatch for the Supply Side of the Energy-Water Nexus.   The paper is authored by Apoorva Santhosh, Prof. Amro M. Farid and Prof. Kamal Youcef-Toumi.

As previous blog posts have discussed, the topic of the energy-water nexus is timely.  In the Gulf Cooperation Council nations, it is of particular relevance because of the hot and arid climate.  Water scarcity is further aggravated high energy demands for cooling.  The GCC nations, however, have a tremendous opportunity in that they often operate their power and water infrastructure under a single operational entity.  Furthermore, the presence of cogeneration facilities such as Multi-Stage Flash desalination facilities fundamentally couple the power and water grids.

This paper is the first of its kind to present an optimization program that would economically dispatch power plants, cogeneration plants, and water plants.  In such a way, significant costs and resources can be saved in the production of both power and water.   The paper concludes with an illustrative example of how the optimization program could be implemented practically.

A full reference list of energy-water nexus research at LIINES can be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

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William Lubega presents Energy-Water Nexus Research at Complex Systems Design & Management Conference in Paris, France

On December 6th 2013, William Lubega and Prof. Amro M. Farid attended the Complex Systems Design & Management Conference in Paris, France.  William Lubega presented the jointly written paper entitled:  “An engineering systems model for the quantitative analysis of the energy-water nexus”.

This work builds upon the Reference Architecture for the Energy-Water Nexus recently published in the IEEE Systems Journal.  In our last blogpost, and as shown in the figure below, we described that this work provided a graphical representation of the energy-water nexus to qualitatively identify the couplings of energy and water.  The CSD&M paper was the first step in the quantification of this qualitative model using the bond graph modeling methodology.   As such, it could begin to answer questions about the energy intensity of the water supply chain and the water intensity of the energy supply chain in a rigorous and systematic framework.

lubeg1

The aim of the CSD&M 2013 conference is to cover as completely as possible the field of complex systems sciences & practices.  It equally welcomes scientific and industrial contributions.

A full reference list of energy-water nexus research at LIINES can be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

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Journal Paper Accepted at the IEEE Systems Journal: A Reference System Architecture for the Energy-Water Nexus

The LIINES is happy to announce that The IEEE Systems Journal has accepted our recent paper entitled:  “A Reference Architecture for the Energy-Water Nexus” for publication. The paper is authored by William N. Lubega and Prof. Amro M. Farid. The topic of the energy-water nexus is a timely one.  Global climate change, water scarcity, energy security and rapid population are at the forefront of sustainability concerns.  Furthermore, the fact that energy and water value chains very much depend on each other complicates how either system should be planned an operated.  And yet, the number, type and degree of interactions are hard to identify.  While the graphical depiction below illustrates many of the couplings, we are still a long way off from planning and operating this “systems-of-systems” sustainably.  And so we ask a first basic question:  “How can we begin to quantitatively understand the energy and water interactions in this nexus?” As the paper explains, a good first step is develop what systems engineers call a reference architecture.  Plainly speaking, this requires three steps:

  1. Figure out all the component parts of the energy-water nexus (e.g. power plants, water treatment plants, etc)
  2. Figure out how each one works
  3. Figure out the inputs and outputs for each one focusing especially on flows of energy and water.

This starts out qualitatively with flow diagrams like the one shown below: lubeg1 In a sense, this helps us to see the “wood from the trees”.  The web of energy and water interactions now become clear for further quantified analysis.  As the readers will see in the coming weeks, this is exactly what we have done at the LIINES. A full reference list of energy-water nexus research at LIINES can be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu WhiteLogo2 LIINES Website: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

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GAMS Developement @ the LIINES — Practical Implementation Advice on Mac OS X, Linux and Windows

One major disciplinary expertise at the Laboratory for the Intelligent Integrated Networks for Engineering Systems is operations management and research.  Naturally, using optimization techniques in the form of mathematical programming is an essential aspect of this competence.  One really useful software package to allow the straightforward numerical optimization is the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) and it has been used extensively in the smart power grid application domain.  Many researchers in the field also link Matlab to GAMS using the former for data processing and results visualization and the latter as a solver.

The implementations at the LIINES, however, have some challenging implementation demands.  For example, model predictive control problems require the solution of a numerical optimization at every discrete time step simulation evolution.  When Matlab calls GAMS — on the Windows platform — it spawns a new graphical user interface integrated development environment (GUI-IDE) window (and all associated dynamic link libraries).  This slows down simulation tremendously.  Even worse, the Windows OS may not be able to reliably handle these repeated calls leading to a crash of the simulation.  Trust us, when you are many hours into a fully automatic simulation, that’s hardly what you are looking for.

Fortunately, the GAMS version of Linux and Mac OS X does not have a GUI-IDE and runs purely from the command line.  We have found this to be not just faster for simulation but also much more stable when tied to MATLAB.  We highly suggest this approach.

Now some will say, that they need the GAMS GUI-IDE for development.  We agree that this can be useful!  Fortunately, you can have the best of both worlds.  Use the command line native Linux/Mac OS X version for reliable simulation.  In the meantime, a Windows version installed over WINE can be used purely for development.  The GAMS support page provides very clear installation instructions here.

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Prof. Amro M. Farid gives keynote lecture on Energy-Water Nexus at EU-GCC Workshop

At the Laboratory for Intelligent Integrated Networks of Engineering Systems, we have been working on the Energy-Water Nexus in recognition that the supply and demand of water and energy are inherently coupled.  In the Middle East, this coupling is particularly aggravated by the hot & arid climate and regional water scarcity.   This subject has gained the attention of numerous policy centers.

Most recently, the EU-GCC Clean Energy Network has recognized the need to collaborate on the Energy-Water Nexus.  On November 26-27 2013, they held the EU-GCC Renewable Energy Policy Experts’ Workshop was held at Masdar Institute in Abu Dhabi, UAE.  Prof. Amro M. Farid was invited to give a keynote presentation entitled:  “Opportunities for Operations Management & Planning of the Energy-Water Nexus”.  In this presentation, we first advocated the need for integrated energy-water markets based upon our recent publications on the subject.  We also noted the potential for integrated energy-water planning that can prioritize the water-intensity of energy technologies and the energy-intensity of water technologies.

Full text of our papers on the energy-water nexus may be found through the LIINES Website publications page.


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