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Journal Paper Accepted: An A Priori Analytical Method for the Determination of Operating Reserve Requirements

We are happy to announce that our recent paper entitled: “An A Priori Analytical Method for the Determination of Operating Reserve Requirements”, has been accepted at the International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (IJEPES). This study comes as a result of collaboration between three universities; Masdar Institute, Dartmouth, and MIT. The work is authored by Aramazd Muzhikyan (Masdar Institute), Prof. Amro M. Farid (Dartmouth) and Prof. Kamal Youcef-Toumi (MIT).

As renewable energy becomes an ever present resource in power systems, so called “operating reserves” become increasingly important instruments for reliable power grid operations. One can think of operating reserves as additional generation capacity scheduled to compensate for real-time power supply and demand imbalances due to the existing uncertainties in forecasting not just demand but also renewable energy. On the one hand, the amount of operating reserves should be sufficient to successfully mitigate the real-time imbalances and maintain power system reliable operations. On the other hand, operating reserves are a costly commodity and they should not exceed the minimum required amount to avoid unnecessary expense. This makes accurate assessment of the operating reserve requirements vital for reliable, economic, and environmentally friendly operation of the power grid.

Currently, the necessary amount of the operating reserves is assessed based upon the power system operator experiences and the assumption that the circumstances of power system operations remain relatively unchanged. However, growing integration of renewable energy sources (RES), implementation of demand side management and transportation electrification alter the overall structure and the dynamics of the power grid. High penetration of RES brings new levels of variability and uncertainty to the grid which challenges the established practices of power system operations and the operating reserve requirement assessment methods. This newly published article provides closed-form analytical formulae that tells grid planners how much reserves to procure as they plan for more renewable energy without sacrificing economics or reliability.

While RES integration can potentially reduce the grid’s CO2 emissions and operating costs, it also brings new challenges that power grid operators need to address in order to maintain reliable operations. Wind power, for example, is known to have high intermittency; that is, the output power of a wind turbine may vary uncontrollably in a wide range. This, combined with comparably low wind forecasting accuracy, requires careful scheduling of traditional power plants and their operating reserves. Integration of solar power, on the other hand, has its own challenges. As shown in the figure below, the net load profile (the power demand minus the solar generation) of a system with integrated solar generation has a distinctive profile. It is often called the “Duck Curve” for its resemblance to the side-profile of a duck. The figure presents the net load profiles of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) for the day of March 31 for forecasted from 2014 to 2020. The “belly” of the curve corresponds to the day time when the solar generation is at its maximum and is expected to grow with new solar power installations. With an estimated demand of 22,000MW in the year 2020, the solar generation accounts for 10,000MW or 45%; leaving only 12,000MW for the traditional generation. This situation increases the risk of overgeneration and solar generation curtailment. Another challenge is the steep jump of the net load around 6pm as solar generation wanes with the sunset and demand picks up for evening home life. Such severe variations of the net load require more careful consideration of the ramping capabilities of the scheduled generation.

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The CAISO duck chart (source: P. Denholm, M. O’Connell, G. Brinkman, and J. Jorgenson, “Overgeneration from Solar Energy in California: A Field Guide to the Duck Chart,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Nov. 2015)

This publication has developed analytical formulae for calculation of the requirements for each type of operating reserves; namely, load following, ramping and regulation. The derivations show that the operating reserve requirements are effectively defined by a set of dimensionless parameters related to the RES characteristics and the operations of the power grid. Those parameters are the penetration level, renewable energy capacity factor, variability, day-ahead and short-term forecast errors of the integrated RES, and the power grid day-ahead scheduling and real-time balancing time steps. Such analytical expressions reveal how the requirements of each type of reserve will change when, for instance, more renewable energy is integrated, renewable energy forecasting accuracy is improved, and the day-ahead scheduling time step is reduced. This study show that higher RES variability significantly increases the requirements of all three types of reserves. Also, while the impact of the RES forecast error on the ramping reserve requirement is negligible, its impact on the load following and regulation reserve requirements can dominate that of the variability. On the other hand, reducing the day-ahead scheduling time step can mitigate the impact of the variability on the load following reserve requirement while having negligible impact on the ramping and regulation reserve requirements. Also, changing the balancing time step has no noticeable impact on the load following reserve requirement, it has opposing impacts on the ramping and regulation reserve requirements. Reducing the balancing time step reduces the regulation reserve requirement but increases the ramping reserve requirement.

These formulae can be used for renewable energy integration studies, such as those conducted in NE-ISO and PJM-ISO, to assess the required amount of reserves for the planned RES installation. They can also be adapted by the state and federal standards organizations to establish reserve procurement standards that reflect the evolution of the power grid.

In depth materials on LIINES smart power grid research can be found on the LIINES website.

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Journal Paper Accepted at Applied Energy Journal – Demand Side Management in a Day-Ahead Wholesale Market: A Comparison of Industrial & Social Welfare Approaches

The LIINES is pleased to announce the acceptance of the paper entitled: “Demand Side Management in a Day-Ahead Wholesale Market: A Comparison of Industrial & Social Welfare Approaches” to Applied Energy Journal for publication. The paper is authored by Bo Jiang, Prof. Amro M. Farid, and Prof. Kamal Youcef-Toumi.

The intermittent and unpredictable nature of renewable energy brings operational challenges to electrical grid reliability. The fast fluctuations in renewable energy generation require high ramping capability which must be met by dispatchable energy resources. In contrast, Demand Side management (DSM) with its ability to allow customers to adjust electricity consumption in response to market signals has been recognized as an efficient way to shape load profiles and mitigate the variable effects of renewable energy as well as to reduce system costs. However, the academic and industrial literature have taken divergent approaches to DSM implementation. While the popular approach among academia adopts a social welfare maximization formulation, defined as the net benefit from electricity consumption measured from zero, the industrial practice introduces an estimated baseline.   This baseline represents the counterfactual electricity consumption that would have occurred without DSM, and customers are compensated according to their load reduction from this predefined electricity consumption baseline.

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In response to the academic and industrial literature gap, our paper rigorously compares these two different approaches in a day-ahead wholesale market context. We developed models for the two methods using the same mathematical formalism and compared them analytically as well as in a test case using RTS-1996 reliability testing system. The comparison of the two models showed that a proper reconciliation of the two models might make them dispatch in fundamentally the same way, but only under very specific conditions that are rarely met in practice. While the social welfare model uses a stochastic net load composed of two terms, the industrial DSM model uses a stochastic net load composed of three terms including the additional baseline term. While very much discouraged, customers have an implicit incentive to surreptitiously inflate the administrative baseline in order to receive greater financial compensation. An artificially inflated baseline is shown to result in a higher resource dispatch and higher system costs.

The high resource scheduling due to inflated baseline likely require more control activity in subsequent layers of enterprise control including security constrained economic dispatch and regulation service layer. Future work will continue to explore the technical and economic effects of erroneous industrial baseline.

About the Author:

Bo Jiang conducted this research in collaboration with her Master’s thesis advisor Prof. Amro M. Farid and Prof. Kamal Youcef-Toumi at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Her research interests include renewable energy integration, power system operations and optimization. Bo is now pursuing her PhD at MIT Mechanical Engineering Department.

A full reference list of Smart Power Grids and Intelligent Energy Systems research at LIINES can be found on the LIINES publication page: http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/liines

 

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Journal Paper Accepted at Springer’s Intelligent Industrial Systems Journal: Multi-Agent System Design Principles for Resilient Coordination & Control of Future Power Systems

The LIINES is pleased to announce the acceptance of the paper: “Multi-Agent System Design Principles for Resilient Coordination & Control of Future Power Systems” in Springer’s Intelligent Industrial Systems Journal. The paper is authored by Amro M. Farid and was published online at May 28th 2015.

Recently, the vision of academia and industry has converged, defining future power system as intelligent, responsive, dynamic, adaptive, and flexible. This vision emphasizes the importance of resilience as a “smart grid” property. It’s implementation remains as a cyber-physical grand challenge.

Power grid resilience allows healthy regions to continue normal operation while disrupted or perturbed regions bring themselves back to normal operation. Previous literature has sought to achieve resilience with microgrids capable of islanded operation enabled by distributed renewable energy resources. These two factors require a holistic approach to managing a power system’s complex dynamics. In our recent work (e.g. link 1 and link 2), we have proposed as means of integrating a power system’s multiple layers of control into a single hierarchical control structure.

In addition to enterprise control, it is important to recognize that resilience requires controllers to be available even if parts of the power grid are disrupted. Therefore, distributed control systems, and more specifically Multi-Agent Systems have often been proposed as the key technology for implementing resilient control systems. Multi-agent systems are commonly used to distribute a specific decision-making algorithm such as those in market negotiation and stability control. However, very few have sought to apply multi-agent systems to achieve a resilient power system.

The purpose of the paper entitled “Multi-Agent System Design Principles for Resilient Coordination & Control of Future Power Systems” is two fold. First, it seeks to identify a set of Multi-Agent System design principles for resilient coordination and control. Second, the paper assesses the adherence of existing Multi-Agent System implementations in the literature with respect to those design principles.

The set of design principles is based on newly developed resilience measures for Large Flexible Engineering Systems. These measures use Axiomatic Design and are directly applicable to the power grid’s many types of functions and its changing structure. These design principles, when followed, guide the conception of a multi-agent system architecture to achieve greater resilience.

About the author: Wester C.H. Schoonenberg completed his B.Sc. in Systems Engineering and Policy Analysis Management at Delft University of Technology in 2014. After his bachelors’ degree, Wester started his graduate work for the LIINES at Masdar Institute, which he continues as a doctoral student at Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College in 2015. Currently, Wester is working on the integrated operation of electrical grids and production systems with a special interest in Zero Carbon Emission Manufacturing Systems.

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LIINES Website: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

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Siemens gives an IEEE PES Webinar on Microgrid Strategic Planning

As we have discussed many times, Smart Power Grids is one of the four essential research themes at the LIINES.  Our work generally advocates the concept of power grid enterprise control and a number of blogposts have been devoted to the topic.   One novel aspect of this work is the use of microgrids which may coordinate their own renewable energy but also have the potential to island themselves from the rest of the grid.  Microgrids — as the name suggests —  are relatively small and so their reliable operation requires careful attention to its design & planning.  In a sense, each generation, load, line and bus must be carefully considered.  

To that effect, we thought we’d share Siemens’ take on the subject.  Their recent IEEE PES Webinar on Microgrid Strategic Planning has recently been put up on youtube.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZWXt9v1JTA0

Full text of our smart power grid reference papers may be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

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Prof. Kamal Youcef-Toumi and Prof. Amro M. Farid give back-to-back invited lectures at Carnegie Mellon University

In the Fall of 2010, Prof. Kamal Youcef-Toumi and Prof. Amro M. Farid teamed up to collaborate on smart power grids.  For Prof. Youcef-Toumi, as director of the Mechatronics Research Laboratory and co-director for the MIT-KFUPM Center for Clean Water and Energy, this was a natural extension of his existing research.  For Prof. Farid, this was a natural shift of application domain from the control, automation and systems engineering of manufacturing system to energy systems.  Many of the recent research outputs featured within the LIINES smart power grid research theme are the rich fruits from this successful collaboration.  Today, on February 5th, both professors were invited to feature their collaboration at the 9th Annual Carnegie Mellon Conference on the Electricity Industry:  The Role of Distributed Coordination in Resilient & Fine-Grain Control of Power Grids.  

The first presentation entitled “A Multi-Agent System Transient Stability Platform for Resilient Self-Healing Operation of Multiple Microgrids” was delivered by Prof. Youcef-Toumi.  This work combines multi-agent system techniques from the field of distributed artificial intelligence with transient stability analysis from power systems engineering.  It recognizes that power grids are operated by multiple independent stakeholders be they independent power producers, semi-autonomous microgrids, full-scale utilities or whole countries.  Each has jurisdiction and control over its respective area even though the physical grids are electrically connected.  Hence, the multiple stakeholders must coordinate and collaborate with distributed control techniques in order to assure technical reliability.  The interested reader is referred to the publications led by Dr. Sergio Rivera on the LIINES website for further information.

The second presentation entitled “An Enterprise Control Approach for the Assessment of Variable Energy Resource Induced Power System Imbalances” was delivered by Prof. Farid.   This presentation reiterates the need for enterprise control techniques when assessing and mitigating the power system imbalances induced by the integration of variable energy resources like wind and solar PV.   It showed that when the power system’s primary, secondary and tertiary control are considered simultaneously, accurate and insightful conclusions can be made about the techno-economic viability of VER integration.  These conclusions overcome many of the limitations of existing methodologies found in recent renewable energy integration studies.  The interested reader is referred to the publications lead by Dr. Aramazd Muzhikyan on the LIINES website for further information.

These lectures follow similar inivited lectures at MIT and the Czech Technical University in Prague.  Full text of the background reference papers may be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

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Prof. Amro M. Farid gives invited lecture at the MIT Mechanical Engineering Department

In recent months, we at the Laboratory for Intelligent Integrated Networks of Engineering Systems have been arguing for “Enterprise Control” in support of the future developments of the electricity grid.  This work has provoked interest in a number of different research communities.  To that end, Prof. Amro M. Farid was invited on January 31st to give a lecture entitled “Intelligent Enterprise Control of Future Electric Power Systems” at the MIT Mechanical Engineering department.  While power grid’s are often seen as the domain of electrical engineers, mechanical engineers have developed a strong interest in smart grids due to the heavy role of power generation and building management.  Furthermore, the concept of enterprise control  which originates from the ISA-s95 standard within the manufacturing domain is particularly familiar to mechanical engineers.  This presentation argues the need for holistic assessment methods and then highlights our recent work on the development of enterprise control strategies.  It draws from multiple LIINES publications lead by Dr. Aramazd Muzhikyan and Dr. Sergio Rivera.

The lecture follows a similar invited lecture at the Czech Technical University Department of Cybernetics in Prague.  Full text of the background reference papers may be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

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LIINES wins Best Applied Research Paper Award at GCC CIGRE 2013

In a recent blog post, we shared that Prof. Amro M. Farid and Dr. Aramazd Muzhikyan authored and presented a paper entitled “The Need for Holistic Assessment Methods for the Future Electricity Grid” at this year’s GCC CIGRE conference held in Abu Dhabi.   This work has now received the Best Applied Research Paper Award!   Prof. Farid accepted the award on behalf of the LIINES from Eng. Salem Harithi (Network Service Director of Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority.) The associated monetary prize will be invested back into the laboratory’s research activities.

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Full text of the paper and related work may be found through the LIINES Website  under paper code [EWN-C08] :  http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu publications page.


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Prof. Amro M. Farid gives invited lecture at the Czech Technical University Department of Cybernetics

In recent months, we at the Laboratory for Intelligent Integrated Networks of Engineering Systems have been arguing for “Enterprise Control” in support of the future developments of the electricity grid.  This work has provoked particular interest from the Artificial Intelligence research community.   To that end, Prof. Amro M. Farid was invited on November 15th to give a lecture entitled “Intelligent Enterprise Control of Future Electric Power Systems” at the Czech Technical University Department of Cybernetics in Prague.  This presentation argues the need for holistic assessment methods and then highlights our recent work on the development of enterprise control strategies.  It draws from multiple LIINES publications lead by Dr. Aramazd Muzhikyan and Dr. Sergio Rivera.

Full text of the background reference papers may be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

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LIINES Websitehttp://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

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Prof. Amro M. Farid presents Power Grid Enterprise Control paper at GCC CIGRE 2013

In recent months, we at the Laboratory for Intelligent Integrated Networks of Engineering Systems have been arguing for “Enterprise Control” in support of the future developments of the electricity grid.  In other words, the power grid’s primary, secondary and tertiary control must be addressed simultaneously to achieve both reliability as well as economic objectives.  These arguments have been presented in various forums.  The most recent of these is an extensive literature review entitled “The Need for Holistic Assessment Methods for the Future Electricity Grid” authored by Prof. Amro M. Farid and Dr. Aramazd Muzhikyan.   Prof. Farid presented this work at the 2013 GCC CIGRE conference held in Abu Dhabi on November 18-20.

Full text of the paper and related work may be found through the LIINES Website  under paper code [EWN-C08] :  http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu publications page.


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LIINES Websitehttp://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

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UAE-GCC Cigre Event on System Performance Development & Renewable Energy

Today, November 27, 2012, the UAE-GCC Cigre Event on System Performance Development & Renewable Energy was held on the ADWEA-TransCo premises in downtown Abu Dhabi. Members of the LIINES in addition to other Masdar Institute faculty and students joined industrial practitioners in the workshop. In all, subjects ranging from future trends in renewable energy to technical discussions on microgrids and power system protection were addressed. The Cigré — le Conseil international des grands réseaux électriques — the International Council of Large Electric Systems was originally founded in Paris, France in 1921. Today, it serves as a professional society for promoting both academic and industrial collaboration to improve the power systems of today and tomorrow.

LIINES Website: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

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