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Journal Paper Accepted at Applied Energy – Demand Side Management in Power Grid Enterprise Control: A Comparison of Industrial & Social Welfare Approaches
The LIINES is happy to announce that our recent paper entitled: “Demand Side Management in Power Grid Enterprise Control: A Comparison of Industrial & Social Welfare Approaches”, has been accepted to the Applied Energy Journal. This study comes as a result of collaboration between three universities; MIT, Masdar Institute, and Dartmouth. The work is authored by Bo Jiang (MIT), Aramazd Muzhikyan (Masdar Institute), Prof. Amro M. Farid (Dartmouth) and Prof. Kamal Youcef-Toumi (MIT).
Demand response is an integral part of a reliable and cost-effective power grid. As wind and solar energy become two important power generation sources that reduce CO2 emissions and ensure domestic energy security, their intermittent and uncertain nature poses operational challenges on the electrical grid’s reliability. Instead of relying solely on dispatchable generation, power grid operators, called ISOs, are adopting Demand Response (DR) programs to allow customers to adjust electricity consumption in response to market signals. These DR programs are an efficient way to introduce dispatchable demand side resources that mitigate the variable effects of renewable energy, enhance power grid reliability and reduce electricity costs. Fortunately, the U.S. Supreme Court’s recent ruling Federal Energy Regulatory Commission vs. Electric Power Supply Association, has upheld the implementation of Demand Response allowing its role to mature in the coming years.
Despite the recognized importance and potential of DR, the academic and industrial literature have taken divergent approaches to its implementation. The popular approach in the scientific literature uses the concept of “Transactive Energy” which works much like a stock market of energy; where customers provide bids for a certain quantity of electricity that they wish to consume. Meanwhile industrial implementations (such as those described by FERC order 745) compensate customers according to their load reduction from a predefined electricity consumption baseline that would have occurred without DR. Such a counter-factual baseline may be erroneous. At the LIINES, we have rigorously compared the two approaches. Our previous journal paper published at Applied Energy “Demand side management in a day-ahead wholesale market: A comparison of industrial & social welfare approaches” conducted the comparison in a day-ahead wholesale market context. It showed, both analytically and numerically, that the use of power consumption baselines in demand response introduces power system imbalances and costlier dispatch.
Our recent paper now expands the analysis from a single day-ahead electricity market to the multiple layers of wholesale markets found in many regions of the North American power grid. This holistic analysis includes the day-ahead, real-time, and ancillary service markets. The integration of these multiple layers of power system operations captures the coupling between them and reveals the the impacts of DR implementation over the course of a full-day with a granularity of tens of seconds. The paper quantifies both the technical and economic impacts of industrial baseline errors in the day-ahead and real-time markets, namely their impacts on power system operating reserve requirements, operating costs and market prices.
The paper concludes that the presence of demand baseline errors – present only in the industrial implementaiton – leads to a cascade of additional system imbalances and costs as compared to the Transactive Energy model. A baseline error introduced in the day-ahead market will increase costs not just in the day-ahead market, but will also introduce a greater net load error residual in the real-time market causing additional costs and imbalances. These imbalances if left unmitigated degrade system reliability or otherwise require costly regulating reserves to achieve the same reliability.
An additional baseline error introduced in the real-time market further compounds this cascading effect with additional costs in the real-time market, amplified downstream imbalances, and further regulation capacity for its mitigation.
Based on these results, the potential for baseline inflation should be given attention by federal energy policy-makers. The effects of industrial baseline errors can be mitigated with effective policy. As a first solution, ISOs could calculate demand response baselines using the same methods of load prediction normally used in energy markets. Such an approach leaves less potential for baseline manipulation. A more comprehensive solution to this problem will be the upcoming trend of transactive energy and would eliminate the concept of baselines and their associated uncertainties entirely.
In depth materials on LIINES smart power grid research can be found on the LIINES website.
Journal Paper accepted at IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics – An Axiomatic Design of a Multi-Agent Reconfigurable Mechatronic System Architecture
The LIINES is pleased to announce the acceptance of the paper “An Axiomatic Design of a Multi-Agent Reconfigurable Mechatronic System Architecture” to the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. The paper is authored by Prof. Amro M. Farid and Prof. Luis Ribeiro.
Recent trends in manufacturing require production facilities to produce a wide variety of products with an increasingly shorter product lifecycle. These trends force production facilities to adjust and redesign production lines on a more regular basis.
Reconfigurable manufacturing systems are designed for rapid change in structure; in both hardware and software components to address the required changes in production capacity and functionality.
Qualitative methods have recently been successful in achieving reconfigurability through multi-agent systems (MAS). However, their implementation remains limited, as an unambiguous quantitative reference architecture for reconfigurability has not yet been developed.
A design methodology based on quantitative reconfigurability measurement would facilitate a logical, and seamless transition between the five stages of the MAS design methodology, as shown below.
Previous work on the reconfigurability of automated manufacturing systems has shown that reconfigurability depends primarily on architectural decisions made in stages 1, 2, 3, and 5. Operational performance of the manufacturing system after the reconfiguration is also important, but is often overlooked by the existing literature. As a result, it’s not clear:
- The degree to which existing designs have achieved their intended level of reconfigurability.
- Which systems are quantitatively more reconfigurable.
- How these designs may overcome their inherent design limitations to achieve greater reconfigurability in subsequent design iterations.
In order to address the previously mentioned issues with existing design methodologies, this paper develops a multi-agent system reference architecture for reconfigurable manufacturing systems driven by a quantitative and formal design approach, directly in line with the above Figure.
The paper uses Axiomatic Design for Large Flexible Engineering Systems to support a well-conceptualized architecture, which is necessary for excellent production system performance. Additionally, Axiomatic Design highlights potential design flaws at an early conceptual stage. This results in the first formal and quantitative reference architecture based on rigorous mathematics.
About the Author
Wester C.H. Schoonenberg completed his B.Sc. in Systems Engineering and Policy Analysis Management at Delft University of Technology in 2014. After his bachelors’ degree, Wester started his graduate work for the LIINES at Masdar Institute, which he continues as a doctoral student at Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College in 2015. Currently, Wester is working on the integrated operation of electrical grids and production systems with a special interest in Zero Carbon Emission Manufacturing Systems.
Reference management is a key competence in any research group or laboratory. Think of a research workflow.
- Get papers
- Get paper reference information
- Read them from anywhere in the world. Take notes.
- Share them with colleagues
- Do the research – referring to papers as required.
- Cite the papers easily in any document preparation system.
- Build the reference list easily and accurately.
- Be ready to change the reference list in subsequent revisions.
- Cost: Endnote required a license for every LIINES researcher at a relatively hefty price tag. Sharing with collaborators was an every harder proposition. Furthermore, yearly upgrade licenses was an even tougher pill to swallow.
- PDF Organization: Managing the filesystem associated with PDF files of all the references is a big challenge. EndNote did not provide a headache-free solution to this. Even worse, an EndNote database could lose links to PDF files making it quite difficult to find again.
- Collaboration & Sharing: The above challenges were compounded when it came to share Endnote Libraries across the LIINES. Endnote sharing through Dropbox across multiple operating systems can get quite hairy!
- Proprietary Platform & Database: When reference databases get large, one increasingly becomes interested in automating tasks for its management. While EndNote does provide plenty of built in automated functionality, the power user ultimately does need to manage records automatically.
- Cost: The Mendeley desktop application is free! This meant that every LIINES researcher could work individually without paying a penny. That said, the associated cost was in the cloud-based monthly data storage plan. While this was a recurring cost, Mendeley’s “Solar System”, “Milky Way”, and “Big Bang” subscription plans were very much priced reasonably. Since Elsevier’s purchase of Mendeley, the cost of new plans has risen; perhaps out of reach for many. Fortunately, with a little computer savvy one could also use other cloud-based storage services like Dropbox or Google Drive to easily store and share reference libraries. Alternatively, many institutions including MIT have recognized the need to provide a uniform platform for their researchers and so have purchased Mendeley Institutional Edition.
- PDF Organization: Probably one of Mendeley’s strongest features is its ability to automatically name and organize PDF files based upon key reference information such as Author Name, Year, and Title. This became a headache free solution.
- Collaboration & Sharing: Another real strength of Mendeley’s is its recognition of Web 2.0 and social media. Mendeley databases are easily shared and synchronized between multiple computers, operating systems, tablets, smart phones, and users in a seamless way. For the LIINES, this meant native support for Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, iOS, and Android for dozens of researchers across the world.
- Standard Database: Finally, Mendeley’s database is written in SQL. This meant that for the advanced database programmer, Mendeley offers the potential to develop automated scripts to manage reference data. This particular strength overcomes some of the feature limitations within the Mendeley desktop application itself.
- Integration with LatTeX/BibTex: Mendeley is able to create and maintain an automatically synced BibTeX database file. However, it provides no user control to the highly important Citation Key! In the course of regular use, Mendeley can change these citation keys which will then cause LaTeX citation links to break in your document. Make sure to keep backups of your BibTeX database unless you want to redo all the links!
- PDF File Import: The jury is still out on this one. Mendeley can directly import PDF files. It will scan the PDF for reference information and insert it into the database. For many files of standard format (e.g. IEEE, Elsevier journals), it does this accurately. However, for many others, it creates lots of errors; forcing the researcher to manually correct the information. At the LIINES, we recommend going to established online reference databases (IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect, Compendex & Google Scholar to download the associated .ris or .bib files instead.
- Batched PDF Import: Many researchers new to reference management have troves of organized pdf files. Others are migrating to Mendeley. Beware that a batch PDF import can create lots of duplicates in the Mendeley database!
- Duplicates Management: Mendeley desktop does provide a “Check for Duplicates” feature but in then requires manual deletion of these duplicates. For large databases, this can be very time consuming.
- Association with Elsevier: Finally, some academics have chosen to boycott Elsevier’s service on ethical grounds. Others distinguish Mendeley from its parent company, and then there is official Mendeley perspective from William Gunn While the LIINES does not participate in this boycott, we recognize its existence out of academic respect and encourage awareness amongst our readership. Ultimately, one must recognize that Mendeley is now a fully commercial product and service. For those that maintain reservations, many highly functional, free and open-source reference management solutions continue to exist.
The use of bibliometric analysis has become an increasing part of scientific publishing today. While bibliometric analysis has brought about a degree of quantified objectivity, many have raised concerns about the potential pitfalls of their usage. We refer our LIINES readership to the recent IEEE Statement on the Appropriate use of Bibliometric Indicators. The associated video can be found below.
LIINES Website: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu