Home » Posts tagged 'Power System Economics' (Page 2)

Tag Archives: Power System Economics

Duke Energy on Analytics and the Internet of Things

It’s been a long time since 2003 when the concept of the Internet of Things was first proposed by U. of Cambridge Auto-ID Laboratory.  At the time, Dr. Amro M. Farid, now head of the Laboratory for Intelligent Integrated Networks of Engineering Systems, was a doctoral student investigating how RFID technology enabled intelligent products within reconfigurable manufacturing systems.  The Internet of Things was being applied primarily in the manufacturing and supply chain domain.

Since then, the Internet of Things concept has taken hold not just in manufacturing systems and supply chains but nearly every industrial system domain including energy.    Every “thing” or “device” has the potential to be connected via an intelligent sensor so as to make decisions — be they centralized within an operations control center — or distributed amongst artificially intelligent multi-agent systems.   The Internet of Things concept has the potential to fundamentally transform industrial systems.

Have a look at Duke Energy’s take on the Internet of Things:

The LIINES is proud to have been working in this area since its inception and continue to do so.  More information on our research can be found on the LIINES website.

WhiteLogo2

LIINES Websitehttp://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

Share this post:

Journal Paper Accepted at Applied Energy Journal: Quantitative engineering systems modeling and analysis of the energy-water nexus

The LIINES is happy to announce that Applied Energy Journal has accepted our recent paper entitled:  “Quantitative engineering systems modeling and analysis of the energy–water nexus” for publication.  The paper is authored by William N. Lubega and Prof. Amro M. Farid.  

Electric power is required to extract, condition, convey, dispose of and recycle water for human use. At the same time, the bulk of global electricity generation capacity uses water as a heat sink or prime mover. This energy-water nexus is of growing importance due to increased demand for water and electricity; distortion of the temporal and spatial availability of fresh water due to climate change; as well as various drivers of more energy-intense water supply for example increased wastewater treatment requirements, and more water-intense electricity generation for example emissions control technologies at power plants.

water-energy_lg

There are several notable published studies on this nexus. At a technology level, there have been attempts to optimize coupling points between the electricity and water systems to reduce the water-intensity of technologies in the former and the energy-intensity of technologies in the latter. Empirical determinations of the electricity-intensity of water technologies and the water-intensity of electricity technologies have been reported and analyzed. Various models that enable the exploration of the water resource implications of defined electricity sector development pathways and thus support the analysis of various water and electricity policies have also been developed. To our knowledge however, a transparent physics-based approach that interfaces a model of the electricity system to models of the municipal water and wastewater systems enabling an input-output analysis of these three systems in unison has not been presented. Such a modeling approach would support integrated control applications as well as integrated planning without a priori specification of development pathways, for example through optimization.

A paper recently published by the LIINES in Applied Energy titled Quantitative engineering systems modeling and analysis of the energy–water nexus presents such a systems-of-system model. In this work, bond graphs are used to develop models that characterize the salient transmissions of matter and energy in and between the electricity, water and wastewater systems as identified in the reference architecture. Bond graphs, which are graphical representations of physical dynamic systems, were chosen as the modeling tool as they facilitate the inter-energy-domain modeling necessitated by the heterogeneous nature of the energy-water nexus. Furthermore they clearly identify causality and readily allow for model enhancement as required by applications. The developed models, when combined, make it possible to relate a region’s energy and municipal water consumption to the required water withdrawals in an input-output model.  This paper builds on another LIINES publication entitled “A Reference Architecture for the Energy-Water Nexus” found in the IEEE Systems Journal.

lubeg1

 

This research is of particular significance to countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council, all of which have limited fresh water resources and thus depend on energy-expensive desalination to meet a large portion of their water needs. This dependence enhances the degree of coupling between the electricity and water systems and thus the associated vulnerability concerns. Furthermore, motivated by the cogeneration of electric power and desalinated water, combined electricity and water authorities have been established in the region. The multi-energy domain model developed in this work is therefore of immediate relevance to the planning and control efforts of these existing institutions.

 

About the Author:

William N. Lubega conducted this research in collaboration with his Master’s thesis advisor Prof. Amro M. Farid in LIINES at the Masdar Institute of Science & Technology Engineering Systems & Management Department.  William is now a doctoral research assistant at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Civil & Environmental Engineering department as part of the Energy-Water-Environment Sustainability Track.  There, he continues his energy-water nexus research in the Stillwell Research Group.

A full reference list of energy-water nexus research at LIINES can be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

WhiteLogo2

LIINES Website: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

Share this post:

Journal Paper Accepted at the Energy Journal: The Impact of Storage Facility Capacity and Ramping Capabilities on the Supply Side of the Energy-Water Nexus

The LIINES is happy to announce that the Energy Journal has accepted our recent paper entitled:  The Impact of Storage Facility Capacity and Ramping Capabilities on the Supply Side of the Energy-Water Nexus.  The paper is authored by Apoorva Santhosh, Prof. Amro M. Farid and Prof. Kamal Youcef-Toumi.  It builds upon an earlier publication entitled:  Real-Time Economic Dispatch for the Supply Side of the Energy-Water Nexus which was summarized in an earlier blog post.

As previous blog posts have discussed, the topic of the energy-water nexus is timely.  In the Gulf Cooperation Council nations, it is of particular relevance because of the hot and arid climate.  Water scarcity is further aggravated high energy demands for cooling.  The GCC nations, however, have a tremendous opportunity in that they often operate their power and water infrastructure under a single operational entity.  Furthermore, the presence of cogeneration facilities such as Multi-Stage Flash desalination facilities fundamentally couple the power and water grids.

This paper expands upon the previously published economic dispatch problem to now include the impact of ramping rates and storage capacities.  The latter is shown to alleviate binding production constraints and flatten production levels to achieve lower costs.   Three cases studies are presented; a base case, a second case inspired by Singapore’s limited water storage availability, and a third case relevant to countries in the Middle East where water storage facilities can be readily constructed. Storage facilities are shown to reduce total operating costs by up to 38% and lead to less variable daily production suggesting that they have an important role to play in the optimization of the energy-water nexus.

A full reference list of energy-water nexus research at LIINES can be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

WhiteLogo2

LIINES Website: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

Share this post:

Siemens gives an IEEE PES Webinar on Microgrid Strategic Planning

As we have discussed many times, Smart Power Grids is one of the four essential research themes at the LIINES.  Our work generally advocates the concept of power grid enterprise control and a number of blogposts have been devoted to the topic.   One novel aspect of this work is the use of microgrids which may coordinate their own renewable energy but also have the potential to island themselves from the rest of the grid.  Microgrids — as the name suggests —  are relatively small and so their reliable operation requires careful attention to its design & planning.  In a sense, each generation, load, line and bus must be carefully considered.  

To that effect, we thought we’d share Siemens’ take on the subject.  Their recent IEEE PES Webinar on Microgrid Strategic Planning has recently been put up on youtube.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZWXt9v1JTA0

Full text of our smart power grid reference papers may be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

WhiteLogo2

LIINES Websitehttp://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

Share this post:

Journal Paper Accepted at the Applied Energy Journal: Real-Time Economic Dispatch for the Supply Side of the Energy-Water Nexus

The LIINES is happy to announce that Applied Energy Journal has accepted our recent paper entitled:  Real-Time Economic Dispatch for the Supply Side of the Energy-Water Nexus.   The paper is authored by Apoorva Santhosh, Prof. Amro M. Farid and Prof. Kamal Youcef-Toumi.

As previous blog posts have discussed, the topic of the energy-water nexus is timely.  In the Gulf Cooperation Council nations, it is of particular relevance because of the hot and arid climate.  Water scarcity is further aggravated high energy demands for cooling.  The GCC nations, however, have a tremendous opportunity in that they often operate their power and water infrastructure under a single operational entity.  Furthermore, the presence of cogeneration facilities such as Multi-Stage Flash desalination facilities fundamentally couple the power and water grids.

This paper is the first of its kind to present an optimization program that would economically dispatch power plants, cogeneration plants, and water plants.  In such a way, significant costs and resources can be saved in the production of both power and water.   The paper concludes with an illustrative example of how the optimization program could be implemented practically.

A full reference list of energy-water nexus research at LIINES can be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

WhiteLogo2

LIINES Website: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

Share this post:

William Lubega presents Energy-Water Nexus Research at Complex Systems Design & Management Conference in Paris, France

On December 6th 2013, William Lubega and Prof. Amro M. Farid attended the Complex Systems Design & Management Conference in Paris, France.  William Lubega presented the jointly written paper entitled:  “An engineering systems model for the quantitative analysis of the energy-water nexus”.

This work builds upon the Reference Architecture for the Energy-Water Nexus recently published in the IEEE Systems Journal.  In our last blogpost, and as shown in the figure below, we described that this work provided a graphical representation of the energy-water nexus to qualitatively identify the couplings of energy and water.  The CSD&M paper was the first step in the quantification of this qualitative model using the bond graph modeling methodology.   As such, it could begin to answer questions about the energy intensity of the water supply chain and the water intensity of the energy supply chain in a rigorous and systematic framework.

lubeg1

The aim of the CSD&M 2013 conference is to cover as completely as possible the field of complex systems sciences & practices.  It equally welcomes scientific and industrial contributions.

A full reference list of energy-water nexus research at LIINES can be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

WhiteLogo2

LIINES Website: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

Share this post:

Journal Paper Accepted at the IEEE Systems Journal: A Reference System Architecture for the Energy-Water Nexus

The LIINES is happy to announce that The IEEE Systems Journal has accepted our recent paper entitled:  “A Reference Architecture for the Energy-Water Nexus” for publication. The paper is authored by William N. Lubega and Prof. Amro M. Farid. The topic of the energy-water nexus is a timely one.  Global climate change, water scarcity, energy security and rapid population are at the forefront of sustainability concerns.  Furthermore, the fact that energy and water value chains very much depend on each other complicates how either system should be planned an operated.  And yet, the number, type and degree of interactions are hard to identify.  While the graphical depiction below illustrates many of the couplings, we are still a long way off from planning and operating this “systems-of-systems” sustainably.  And so we ask a first basic question:  “How can we begin to quantitatively understand the energy and water interactions in this nexus?” As the paper explains, a good first step is develop what systems engineers call a reference architecture.  Plainly speaking, this requires three steps:

  1. Figure out all the component parts of the energy-water nexus (e.g. power plants, water treatment plants, etc)
  2. Figure out how each one works
  3. Figure out the inputs and outputs for each one focusing especially on flows of energy and water.

This starts out qualitatively with flow diagrams like the one shown below: lubeg1 In a sense, this helps us to see the “wood from the trees”.  The web of energy and water interactions now become clear for further quantified analysis.  As the readers will see in the coming weeks, this is exactly what we have done at the LIINES. A full reference list of energy-water nexus research at LIINES can be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu WhiteLogo2 LIINES Website: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

Share this post:

Prof. Kamal Youcef-Toumi and Prof. Amro M. Farid give back-to-back invited lectures at Carnegie Mellon University

In the Fall of 2010, Prof. Kamal Youcef-Toumi and Prof. Amro M. Farid teamed up to collaborate on smart power grids.  For Prof. Youcef-Toumi, as director of the Mechatronics Research Laboratory and co-director for the MIT-KFUPM Center for Clean Water and Energy, this was a natural extension of his existing research.  For Prof. Farid, this was a natural shift of application domain from the control, automation and systems engineering of manufacturing system to energy systems.  Many of the recent research outputs featured within the LIINES smart power grid research theme are the rich fruits from this successful collaboration.  Today, on February 5th, both professors were invited to feature their collaboration at the 9th Annual Carnegie Mellon Conference on the Electricity Industry:  The Role of Distributed Coordination in Resilient & Fine-Grain Control of Power Grids.  

The first presentation entitled “A Multi-Agent System Transient Stability Platform for Resilient Self-Healing Operation of Multiple Microgrids” was delivered by Prof. Youcef-Toumi.  This work combines multi-agent system techniques from the field of distributed artificial intelligence with transient stability analysis from power systems engineering.  It recognizes that power grids are operated by multiple independent stakeholders be they independent power producers, semi-autonomous microgrids, full-scale utilities or whole countries.  Each has jurisdiction and control over its respective area even though the physical grids are electrically connected.  Hence, the multiple stakeholders must coordinate and collaborate with distributed control techniques in order to assure technical reliability.  The interested reader is referred to the publications led by Dr. Sergio Rivera on the LIINES website for further information.

The second presentation entitled “An Enterprise Control Approach for the Assessment of Variable Energy Resource Induced Power System Imbalances” was delivered by Prof. Farid.   This presentation reiterates the need for enterprise control techniques when assessing and mitigating the power system imbalances induced by the integration of variable energy resources like wind and solar PV.   It showed that when the power system’s primary, secondary and tertiary control are considered simultaneously, accurate and insightful conclusions can be made about the techno-economic viability of VER integration.  These conclusions overcome many of the limitations of existing methodologies found in recent renewable energy integration studies.  The interested reader is referred to the publications lead by Dr. Aramazd Muzhikyan on the LIINES website for further information.

These lectures follow similar inivited lectures at MIT and the Czech Technical University in Prague.  Full text of the background reference papers may be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

WhiteLogo2

LIINES Websitehttp://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

Share this post:

Prof. Amro M. Farid gives invited lecture at the MIT Mechanical Engineering Department

In recent months, we at the Laboratory for Intelligent Integrated Networks of Engineering Systems have been arguing for “Enterprise Control” in support of the future developments of the electricity grid.  This work has provoked interest in a number of different research communities.  To that end, Prof. Amro M. Farid was invited on January 31st to give a lecture entitled “Intelligent Enterprise Control of Future Electric Power Systems” at the MIT Mechanical Engineering department.  While power grid’s are often seen as the domain of electrical engineers, mechanical engineers have developed a strong interest in smart grids due to the heavy role of power generation and building management.  Furthermore, the concept of enterprise control  which originates from the ISA-s95 standard within the manufacturing domain is particularly familiar to mechanical engineers.  This presentation argues the need for holistic assessment methods and then highlights our recent work on the development of enterprise control strategies.  It draws from multiple LIINES publications lead by Dr. Aramazd Muzhikyan and Dr. Sergio Rivera.

The lecture follows a similar invited lecture at the Czech Technical University Department of Cybernetics in Prague.  Full text of the background reference papers may be found on the LIINES publication page: http://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

WhiteLogo2

LIINES Websitehttp://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

Share this post:

GAMS Developement @ the LIINES — Practical Implementation Advice on Mac OS X, Linux and Windows

One major disciplinary expertise at the Laboratory for the Intelligent Integrated Networks for Engineering Systems is operations management and research.  Naturally, using optimization techniques in the form of mathematical programming is an essential aspect of this competence.  One really useful software package to allow the straightforward numerical optimization is the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) and it has been used extensively in the smart power grid application domain.  Many researchers in the field also link Matlab to GAMS using the former for data processing and results visualization and the latter as a solver.

The implementations at the LIINES, however, have some challenging implementation demands.  For example, model predictive control problems require the solution of a numerical optimization at every discrete time step simulation evolution.  When Matlab calls GAMS — on the Windows platform — it spawns a new graphical user interface integrated development environment (GUI-IDE) window (and all associated dynamic link libraries).  This slows down simulation tremendously.  Even worse, the Windows OS may not be able to reliably handle these repeated calls leading to a crash of the simulation.  Trust us, when you are many hours into a fully automatic simulation, that’s hardly what you are looking for.

Fortunately, the GAMS version of Linux and Mac OS X does not have a GUI-IDE and runs purely from the command line.  We have found this to be not just faster for simulation but also much more stable when tied to MATLAB.  We highly suggest this approach.

Now some will say, that they need the GAMS GUI-IDE for development.  We agree that this can be useful!  Fortunately, you can have the best of both worlds.  Use the command line native Linux/Mac OS X version for reliable simulation.  In the meantime, a Windows version installed over WINE can be used purely for development.  The GAMS support page provides very clear installation instructions here.

WhiteLogo2

LIINES Websitehttp://amfarid.scripts.mit.edu

Share this post:

Subscribe

Enter your email address to receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 585 other subscribers