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Smart Power Grids Theme:

Traditional power systems have often been built on the basis of an electrical energy value chain which consists of a relatively few centralized and actively control thermal power generation facilities serving a relatively large number of distributed passive electrical loads. However, the IEEE Control Systems Society outlines five trends which are set to dramatically challenge the basic assumptions upon which the electric power grid was built. These are:

  1. Decarbonization of electric power generation
  2. Continued yearly growth of electricity demand especially in developing economies
  3. Electrification of the transportation sector
  4. Trends towards electric power deregulation
  5. Trends towards empowered consumers responsive to the grid's physical and economic conditions.
Taken together, these drivers virtually require a steadily increasing penetration of variable energy resources (VERs) into the power grid. As a result, the overall dispatchability of the generation fleet is set to decrease while the overall dispatchability of demand is set to increase. Naturally, power system assessment techniques should correspondingly evolve to accommodate that the control as well as the disturbance may originate from either generation or demand.

To address these needs, the LIINES Smart Power Grid Research Theme has made contributions in three areas:

Key Achievements in Smart Grid Thought Leadership:

LIINES has been fortunate to be a part of several smart grid thought leadership activities:
  • eIoT: The Development of the Energy Internet of Things in Energy Infrastructure (2018): In this book, the LIINES describes how IoT is able to transform energy infrastructure and help bring about the sustainable energy transition.
  • Distributed Control for Distributed Energy Resources: Long-Term Challenges & Lessons Learned (2018): Building upon previous work, the LIINES identifies seven long-term challenges facing the future distributed control design of electricity markets.
  • The Need for Holistic Enterprise Control Assessment Methods for the Future Electricity Grid (2016): In this comprehensive literature-based study, the LIINES presents a logical case for integrating power grid assessment methods into holistic enterprise control frameworks. To support the argument, the LIINES has conducted the most comprehensive review of renewable energy integration studies conducted to date.
  • World Wind Energy Association Integration Report (2015): This WWEA report is a futuristic assessment of the role of wind power in the power grid in the year 2050. In this work, Prof. Farid highlights smart grid enterprise control as a systematic approach to the holistic assessment of the power grid with large scale penetration of wind power.
  • IEEE Vision for Smart Grid Controls: 2030 and Beyond (2013): The IEEE Control Systems Society Technical Committee on Smart Grids developed this study to highlight the essential role of control theory, technology and systems in the much needed transformation of today’s electric power grid. Prof. Farid contributed significantly to the study’s treatment of renewable energy integration and demand response.
  • MIT Future of the Electric Grid Study (2011): Dr. Farid contributed significantly to this study. The MIT Energy Initiative has produced the “Future of..” studies as a series of multidisciplinary reports that examines the role of various energy systems could play in future energy scenarios under carbon dioxide emissions constraints. Prof. Farid contributed significantly to the study’s treatment of renewable energy integration, demand response, and electrified transportation.
Key Achievements in Electric Power Enterprise Control Systems:

LIINES has also proposed Electric Power Enterprise Control Systems as a simulation approach that integrates a power grid’s multiple layers of operation and control so as to conduct holistic techno-economic assessments in the presence of large scale renewable energy, energy storage, & demand-side energy resources. This has lead to:
  • Power System Enterprise Control with Inertial Response Procurement (2018): Lead by Aramazd Muzhikyan, this work now extends the enterprise control assessment to meet inertial response requirements.
  • Demand Side Management in Power Grid Enterprise Control — A Comparison of Industrial and Social Welfare Approaches (2017): Lead by Bo Jiang, this work uses an enterprise control assessment approach to show that industrial implementation of demand response is less economic efficient and less technically reliable than an transactive energy — social welfare based approach.
  • Relative Merits of Load Following Reserves & Energy Storage Market Integration Towards Power System Imbalances (2016): Lead by Aramazd Muzhikyan, this work now extends the enterprise control assessment to the integration of energy storage resources and contrasts their performance against traditional load following reserves.
  • An Enterprise Control Assessment Method for Variable Energy Resource Induced Power System Imbalances. Part 2: Parametric Sensitivity Analysis (2015): Lead by Aramazd Muzhikyan, this work presents comprehensive simulation results of power system parameters on its balancing performance. These include exogenous factors such as renewable energy penetration, variability, & forecast error as well as endogenous factors such as day-ahead & real-time market time steps. The work also highlights the essential role of load-following, ramping, & regulation reserves in mitigating imbalances.
  • An Enterprise Control Assessment Method for Variable Energy Resource Induced Power System Imbalances. Part 1: Methodology (2015): Lead by Aramazd Muzhikyan, this work lays out the methodology for conducting an enterprise control assessment in power systems.
Key Achievements in Smart Grid Control Systems:

The LIINES has made several contributions to smart grid operation & control systems which individually may be implemented within the enterprise control approach. These include:
  • Small Signal & Transient Stability of the Physical Power Grid (2012 & 2013): Hussein Abdel-Halim investigated new approaches to tuning turbine governors in the presence of wind generation as well as new approaches to the placement of wind generators. Fang-Yu Liu is extending this work to include demand-side resources in the micro-grid domain.

Additionally, we have written several blog posts specifically on the topic of
Smart Power Grids @ the LIINES.

LIINES Smart Power Grid Research Theme Publications :
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